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EMERGING THREATS - VIETNAM ON THE RISE



This past week, Vietnam joins the ‘one state’ hackers club, Malware infects POS systems of a US fast-food chain, ransomware continues to impact Local Governments, a phishing scam tricks Office 365 users and Data Breaches in USA, UK, Australia & New Zealand highlighted.


This Week’s Top Dark Web Compromises*:

Top Source Hits: ID Theft Forums (99%) Top Compromise Type: Domain (99%) Top Industry: Finance & Insurance Top Employee Count: 11 - 50 Employees


This Week’s Top Targeted Industries*:

Healthcare Hits: 389 | Targets: LabCorp, Quest Diagnostics, Aetna, Humana Inc, Singapore Health Services

Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology Hits: 272 | Targets: LabCorp, Eurofins Scientific

Healthcare Providers Hits: 119 | Targets: Quest Diagnostics, MCCI, Sisters of Mercy Health System, Humana Inc

Healthcare Providers Hits: 117 | Targets: Quest Diagnostics, Humana Inc

Finance Hits: 73 | Targets: PayPal, Equifax Inc, Coinbase, Westpac Banking Corp, Bank of America


This Week’s Top Threat Actors*:

Hezbollah Hits: 15 | Targets: Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, United States

Shadow Brokers Hits: 10 | Targets: Microsoft Windows, Microsoft, Cisco Systems Inc, Iran, China

APT34 OilRig Hits: 8 | Targets: Saudi Arabia, Israel, United States, Middle Eastern government, Petroleum

Platinum APT Hits: 7 | Targets: Microsoft Windows, Microsoft, AMT SOL, Cyber Edge Enter, Microsoft Windows Server 2008

APT32 OceanLotus Hits: 6 | Targets: Vietnam, Mac OS, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, China, Toyota Motor Corp.


This Week’s Top Malware Compromises*:

BlackSquid Hits: 58 | Targets: Monero, Cryptocurrency, Web Server, XMRig Miner, ThinkPHP

Wcry Hits: 31 | Targets: Boeing, Microsoft Windows, United Kingdom, Bitcoin, National Health Service

UPATRE Hits: 21 | Targets: University of Florida, Personal Computer, Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Windows Xp, Application Compatibility Database Installer

Zebrocy Hits: 15 | Targets: Democratic National Committee, Occidente, Visual Basic.NET, United States, China

XMRig Miner Hits: 15 | Targets: Mac, Linux, Microsoft Windows, HTC Corporation, Monero

______________________________________________________________________


IN OTHER NEWS


EMERGING CYBER THREAT – VIETNAM JOINS THE HACKERS CIRCLE*:

Threat intelligence firm ‘IntSights’ has issued a threat brief on the growing offensive Cyber Capabilities of Vietnam. The reasoning is a combination of state-affiliated -- or at least state-aligned -- advanced groups APT32 (OceanLotus) and APT-C-01 (Poison Ivy), and local Cyber legislation that is promoting the development of Cyber subterfuge among Vietnamese young. The threat brief is authored by a cyber threat intelligence analyst and former NSA offensive Asia Analyst. The existing threat is primarily a response to economic issues; but increasing cyber capabilities will come as a response to internal political issues. The latter effect is focused on Vietnam's control over the internet and its use. A new cybersecurity law which came into effect at the beginning of 2019 requires companies like Google and Facebook to open offices in Vietnam, store local user data in Vietnam, and hand over personal information to government on demand. The law also allows censorship and created a 10,000 strong Force 47," to combat," says the analyst, "proliferation of views it deems offensive or toxic." The result, however, is a migration of youngsters to the Dark Web. "As Vietnamese authorities attempt to strengthen their grip via censorship," she continues, "they drive more and more Vietnamese citizens to the Dark Web for access to unfiltered content." In these dark web forums, cyber capable youngsters are likely to learn the skills of cyber criminality. "While Vietnam may not have the resources to combat world superpowers - like China or the U.S. - in traditional warfare or economic stature, cyber is levelling the playing field," comments the analyst. "Vietnam has the potential to develop into a cybercriminal outpost, as its government continues to censor the public and push its youthful middle class toward the fringes with its strict internet legislation." The two primary advanced hacking groups are either state-sponsored or closely align themselves with government policy. That policy is rapid economic expansion. The country's "one-party government," says the brief, "has committed to an aggressive economic growth strategy, searching for advantages it can gain over the more established regional economic powerhouses - China, Japan, South Korea, and neighboring Southeast Asian countries like Singapore." Noticeably, OceanLotus (which has been compared to Russian hacking groups in its degree of sophistication) has been targeting foreign governments, businesses, and dissidents for financial gain and to equip the government with economic intelligence on its rivals. In recent months it has targeted the automotive industry, which the analyst believes is directly connected to the imminent launch of Vietnam's first domestic auto company planned for September 2019. The Poison Ivy group, so named for its use of the Poison Ivy RAT ( A Remote Access Trojan [RAT] is a malware program that includes a back door for administrative control over the target computer. RATs are usually downloaded invisibly with a user-requested program -- such as a game -- or sent as an email attachment.) has been operating cyber espionage campaigns against Chinese intelligence agencies, military operations, academic institutions, and scientific research labs since at least 2007. (Poison Ivy is also used by one of China's own leading hacking groups, APT10.) The future threat from Vietnam is likely to come on two-fronts -- basic cyber criminality caused by internal political policy pushing citizens onto the Dark Web criminal training ground, and increasing state activity supporting Vietnamese economic policies. The economic drive is similar to China, although smaller at this time. "There are clear parallels between the two nations' strategies." the former NSA offensive Asia Analyst told SecurityWeek. "Economic growth creates power. Cyber espionage fuels economic advantages. We can definitely expect to see Vietnamese targets change to align with changing economic priorities." But it is also likely to increase. Political policy will increase the number of cyber criminals in Vietnam -- and National Governments have a tendency to recruit from their 'best' cybercriminals. The threat from Vietnam is likely to grow.


OFFICE 365 USERS TARGETED IN SOPHISTICATED PHISHING CAMPAIGN*:

Users of Microsoft’s popular Office 365 software might be the victims of the latest phishing campaign making its rounds online. Some users are receiving notifications purporting to be from “Office 365 Team” notifying recipients of an “unusual volume of file deletion” on their accounts. When recipients click on the “View alert details” link, a fake Microsoft login page appears that captures users’ login credentials. The attackers are using Azure, a popular hosting site that makes it more difficult to distinguish questionable URLs in a phishing attack. The growing sophistication of these attacks makes it even more difficult for users to differentiate a phishing attack from a real message. However, comprehensive training from providers like us can stop phishing scams in their tracks by empowering customer and employees with cybersecurity training and awareness.


NEW ACTIVITY DETECTED FROM CHINESE CYBER ESPIONAGE GROUP*:

Researchers have detected what they believe to be new activity from Chinese cyber espionage group, APT10. The activity surfaced in the Philippines and shares similar tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) and code associated with APT10. APT10 is the group behind Operation Cloud Hopper analyzed by PwC UK and BAE Systems in 2017. In December 2018, all five nations in the Five Eyes electronic surveillance alliance (USA, Canada, UK, Australia and New Zealand) officially pinned Cloud Hopper to APT10, and APT10 to the Chinese government. The U.S. went so far as to indict two Chinese nationals, Zhu Hua and Zhang Shilong. Both are alleged to be associated with the Chinese Ministry of State Security ín theTianjin State Security Bureau. Implementation of a JavaScript engine, part of Oracle's Java platform, was used in these cases as a loader for the malware. The two malware payloads discovered are PlugX and a modified Quasar RAT ( A Remote Access Trojan [RAT] is a malware program that includes a back door for administrative control over the target computer. RATs are usually downloaded invisibly with a user-requested program -- such as a game -- or sent as an email attachment.) PlugX is thought to be APT10 proprietary malware, and has been used by the group for several years. It is modular in design with numerous plug-ins available -- such as communication compression and encryption, network enumeration, files interaction, remote shell operations and more. The new Quasar RAT version includes SharpSploit and its built-in Mimikatz capabilities to extract passwords. While examining the network infrastructure overlaps between these two malware samples, ‘enSilo’ found a password-protected zip named 'chrome_updata' associated with the kaspresksy[.]com domain, and containing a sample of the Poison Ivy RAT. Poison Ivy is another malware associated with APT10. It was used in a campaign against individuals in the Mongolian government in 2017. The similarities in malware, methods and domain names makes ‘enSilo’ confident that this activity stems from APT10. What it doesn't know is whether it is part of a testing environment, or was a short-lived attack that has already finished. "Either way," it concludes, "it's safe to say that the threat actor behind APT10 is still active and we have yet to see the last of the group."


CEO SENTENCED TO PRISON FOR PROVIDING ENCRIPTION SERVICES AND DEVICES TO CRIMINAL ORGANISATIONS*:

Vincent Ramos, the chief executive of Canada-based Phantom Secure, was sentenced to nine years in prison today for leading a criminal enterprise that facilitated the transnational importation and distribution of narcotics through the sale of encrypted communication devices and services. The Court also ordered Ramos to forfeit $80 million as proceeds of the crime, as well as specifically identified assets, including international bank accounts, real estate, cryptocurrency accounts, and gold coins. This conviction marks the first time the United States targeted a company and convicted its chief executive for knowingly providing transnational criminal organizations with the encrypted infrastructure to conduct the international importation and distribution of narcotics. “Vincent Ramos is going to prison because he provided violent, drug trafficking organizations with a high tech tool that enabled them to coordinate their crimes while staying in the shadows,” said U.S. Attorney Robert Brewer. “But Ramos’s system is down permanently, he has forfeited his wealth, and he is going to prison for nearly a decade. We will continue to investigate and prosecute these individuals, whether they are the ones transporting and selling drugs, or providing the tools to those who do.” “I want to thank prosecutors and all of our law enforcement partners around the world, including Australia, Canada, Panama, Hong Kong, and Thailand for their hard work on this case,” Brewer said. “Striking at the heart of organized crime has always been a priority for the FBI,” said Scott Brunner, FBI Special Agent in Charge of the San Diego Field Office. “This case demonstrates that no matter the dangerous criminal activity or the advanced technology used by these sophisticated criminal enterprises, the FBI will keep pace to infiltrate and dismantle the organizations that, in today’s world, operate domestically and internationally. As a result, the FBI joins forces with exceptional law enforcement partners both in the U.S. and abroad, to ensure every tentacle of the global enterprise is severed and cannot operate its illegal and dangerous crimes.” Ramos advertised Phantom Secure’s products as impervious to decryption, wiretapping or legal third-party records requests. Phantom Secure routinely deleted and destroyed evidence from devices that it knew had been seized by law enforcement. According to court documents, one of Ramos’s customers, Owen Hanson (who was previously sentenced to 21 years in custody), used only six Phantom Secure devices to coordinate the transportation of more than a ton of cocaine from Mexico into the United States and on to Canada and Australia. The government conservatively estimates there were at least 7,000 Phantom Secure devices in use at the time Ramos was arrested--meaning that “the amount of drugs Phantom Secure aided and abetted in transporting by providing devices and services to criminals worldwide was too high calculate.” Ramos’ customers used his products to devastating and sometimes deadly effect, and Ramos used this to market his encryption services to criminals across the world. According to court documents, in response to a March 5, 2014 news article that reported investigations of a gangland murder were stymied because the suspects used Phantom Secure devices to coordinate the killing, Ramos wrote, “this is the best verification on what we have been saying all along – proven and effective for now over nine years. It is the highest level of authority confirming our effectiveness. It can’t get better than that.”

The international operation to arrest Ramos and seize Phantom Secure’s infrastructure involved cooperation and efforts by law enforcement authorities in the United States, Australia, and Canada, with additional assistance from U.S. and foreign law enforcement in Panama, Hong Kong, and Thailand.



THREAT FOCUS – New Zealand Treasury – NEW ZEALAND*

Exploit: Unauthorized system access New Zealand Treasury: Central public service department for New Zealand, overseeing economic policy and performance Risk to Small Business: 1.666 = Severe: An unauthorized user gained access to the department’s network, potentially procuring sensitive budgetary information scheduled for future release. The agency has support from the National Cyber Security Centre to identify the source of the breach, and they are conducting a holistic overview of their security standards. This incident is a reminder that personal information isn’t the only valuable asset that organizations hold. Their proprietary data can be equally as valuable to hackers.

Individual Risk: No personal information was compromised in the breach.

Customers Impacted: Unknown

Effect On Customers: While most companies are rightly focused on securing their customers’ data, they need to be continually mindful of guarding their own information as well. Company data can be incredibly valuable, and organizations can struggle to recuperate that information once it’s unleashed on the internet or the Dark Web.

Risk Levels: 1 - 1.5 = Extreme Risk 1.51 - 2.49 = Severe Risk 2.5 - 3 = Moderate Risk *The risk score is calculated using a formula that considers a wide range of factors related to the assessed breach.


THREAT FOCUS: Landmark White Property – AUSTRALIA*

Exploit: Unauthorized database access LandMark White: Property evaluation firm Risk to Small Business: 1.555 = Severe: Company documents were lifted from its internal database and uploaded to the website Scribd. This marks the company’s second data breach in the past six months. LandMark White is currently in the process of having their documents removed from Scribd, and they’ve begun an internal investigation to determine the source of the breach.

Individual Risk: 2.714 = Severe: According to the firm, the posted documents are primarily PDFs containing valuations and operationally related commercial documents, which lessens the risk of individual exposure. However, it’s possible that individuals working with the company could have their information included on a posted document. Therefore, anyone with a relationship with the firm should be vigilant about monitoring their personal information to ensure its integrity.

Individual Risk: 2.714 = Severe: According to the firm, the posted documents are primarily PDFs containing valuations and operationally related commercial documents, which lessens the risk of individual exposure. However, it’s possible that individuals working with the company could have their information included on a posted document. Therefore, anyone with a relationship with the firm should be vigilant about monitoring their personal information to ensure its integrity.

Customers Impacted: Unknown

Effect On Customers: Security vulnerabilities come in many forms, and every organization needs a holistic approach to data security that includes a well-rounded risk assessment and a comprehensive plan for mitigating the most prescient risks. Partnering with an MSP can provide the insight necessary to achieve this.

Risk Levels: 1 - 1.5 = Extreme Risk 1.51 - 2.49 = Severe Risk 2.5 - 3 = Moderate Risk *The risk score is calculated using a formula that considers a wide range of factors related to the assessed breach.


THREAT FOCUS: Greene King Brewers – UNITED KINGDOM*

Exploit: Unauthorized website access Greene King: Pub retailer and brewer that owns pubs, restaurants, and hotels Risk to Small Business: 1.666 = Severe: Hackers gained access to Greene King’s gift card website, which contained sensitive customer information. The company notified the Information Commissioner’s Office about the breach, and they will now have to manage the legal and technological ramifications of lax security standards

Individual Risk: 2.285 = Severe: Although bank details and payment information were not accessed in the breach, hackers did gain access to customers’ names, email addresses, user IDs, encrypted passwords, addresses, postcodes, and gift card order numbers. Even without collecting payment data, personal information can be extremely valuable on the Dark Web, and it can be used to perpetuate identity theft and other forms of fraud. Anyone impacted by the breach should procure identity monitoring services to protect themselves from these malicious acts.

Customers Impacted: Unknown

Effect On Customers: While a data breach is incredibly devastating for any company, they can begin repairing the damage by providing clear communication and incredible customer service in the wake of the event. When personal information is revealed, the company should provide customers with the services they need to safeguard their credentials and to achieve the peace-of-mind.

Risk Levels: 1 - 1.5 = Extreme Risk 1.51 - 2.49 = Severe Risk 2.5 - 3 = Moderate Risk *The risk score is calculated using a formula that considers a wide range of factors related to the assessed breach.


THREAT FOCUS: Leicester Football Club – UNITED KINGDOM*

Exploit: Malware Leicester City Football Club: English professional football club Risk to Small Business: 1.888 = Severe: Malware infecting the online store for the football club has siphoned payment information from the site’s users. Although the company can’t confirm the precise vulnerability that led to the breach, online stores are increasingly being targeted using the Magecart infection because of the uniquely sensitive information that is exposed during the checkout process. The team notified its customers of the breach, and it is now undergoing the arduous process of restoring faith in their platform

Individual Risk: 2.285 = Severe: The malware collected payment information at checkout, which includes names, payment card information, expiration dates, and CVVs. While hackers are prevented from using the compromised payment information on the site, this data is valuable on the Dark Web, and it can quickly spread to other outlets through spear-phishing attacks. Users should be extremely vigilant about monitoring their financial records, and they are encouraged to acquire credit monitoring services

Customers Impacted: Unknown

Effect On Customers: In the wake of many damaging data breaches originating at checkout, any organization with an online store needs to be especially mindful of their cybersecurity vulnerabilities. Most notably, they need to address them before they damage their customers while also doing considerable harm to the company’s bottom line and reputation. In addition, every organization needs a plan to support their customers in the event of an attack.

Risk Levels: 1 - 1.5 = Extreme Risk 1.51 - 2.49 = Severe Risk 2.5 - 3 = Moderate Risk *The risk score is calculated using a formula that considers a wide range of factors related to the assessed breach.


THREAT FOCUS: People Inc – USA*

Exploit: Employee email account breach People Inc.: New York’s largest non-profit organization providing services for seniors, families, and individuals with developmental disabilities

Risk to Small Business: 1.555 = Severe: A compromised email account gave hackers access to an extensive amount of client and patient information. Security officials believe that a brute force attack exploited a weak employee password, and a simple password reset secured the account. However, it was later discovered that the company knew of the breach as early as February, which makes their recent acknowledgement of the incident especially alarming.

Individual Risk: 2 = Severe: The compromised email account included vast amounts of client and patient information. Names, addresses, social security numbers, financial data, medical information, health insurance information, and government IDs were all accessible to hackers. This information can quickly spread on the Dark Web, and clients or patients should be vigilant about acquiring identity and credit monitoring services as a precaution against credential misuse.

Customers Impacted: 1,000

Effect On Customers: This incident underscores the importance of cybersecurity best practices in any organization. A simple oversight gave hackers access to a single account, which compromised the information of 1,000 people. Every organization needs to prioritize training and oversight as a cybersecurity must-have. This data breach, like many others, was entirely preventable, and no organization wants to bear the financial and reputational burden of an avoidable oversight.

Risk Levels: 1 - 1.5 = Extreme Risk 1.51 - 2.49 = Severe Risk 2.5 - 3 = Moderate Risk *The risk score is calculated using a formula that considers a wide range of factors related to the assessed breach.


THREAT FOCUS: City Of Loredo – USA*

Exploit: Ransomware City of Laredo: Local government organization serving Laredo, Texas

Risk to Small Business: 2.111 = Severe: A ransomware virus encrypted the city’s document management system, requiring a total shutdown of the city’s computers. Fire, police, and utility and health departments were the first to be restored, but agencies were required to work offline while authorities cleared each individual computer and were forced to interrupt business processes.

Individual Risk: No personal or employee information was compromised in this attack.

Customers Impacted: Unknown

Effect on Customers: Ransomware attacks on local government and small businesses are on the rise, and everyone needs a response plan in place before an incident occurs. In this case, quick action prevented the virus from spreading deeper into the system, and the city’s ransomware insurance will help defer the costs of a breach. At the same time, many ransomware attacks are initiated by phishing scams, which means that every company should include training on cybersecurity best practices as a part of their ransomware preparedness plan.

Risk Levels: 1 - 1.5 = Extreme Risk 1.51 - 2.49 = Severe Risk 2.5 - 3 = Moderate Risk *The risk score is calculated using a formula that considers a wide range of factors related to the assessed breach.


THREAT FOCUS: Checkers Drive-in Restaurants Inc – USA*

Exploit: Malware Checkers Drive-in Restaurants Inc.: Fast food chain operating in 28 states Risk to Small Business: 2 = Severe: Hackers successfully infected 102 of the company's point-of-sale systems with malware that stole customers’ payment information. The restaurant chain has elicited the support of law enforcement authorities and third-party security experts to remove the corrupted software from their systems. They will now face the considerable costs of digital infrastructure repair and reputational costs that could discourage people from visiting their restaurants.

Individual Risk: 2.285 = Severe: Attackers gained access to information stored on the credit or debit cards’ magnetic strips. This includes cardholder names, payment card numbers, verification codes, and expiration dates. This extensive payment information can quickly make its way to the Dark Web or be redeployed as a payment method on other websites. All customers should review their account statements for suspicious activity while also procuring credit monitoring services.

Customers Impacted: Unknown

Effect On Customers: Any company reliant on point-of-sale exchanges with their customers must be especially vigilant about protecting the integrity of these systems. Not only is it incredibly costly to repair the technological infrastructure, but the cascading consequences of reputational damage can be even more profound. Companies can (and should) demonstrate their commitment to protecting their employees and customers by taking proactive measures to prevent future breaches.

Risk Levels: 1 - 1.5 = Extreme Risk 1.51 - 2.49 = Severe Risk 2.5 - 3 = Moderate Risk *The risk score is calculated using a formula that considers a wide range of factors related to the assessed breach.


THREAT FOCUS: Flipboard – USA*

Exploit: Unauthorized database access Flipboard: News aggregator service and mobile app Risk to Small Business: 2 = Severe: Hackers accessed a database containing users’ account information on two separate occasions during a span of nine months. The company notified law enforcement of the breach and hired a third-party investigative firm to audit their security standards and develop better standards for the future. However, this incident will inflict a significant black eye on their reputation, and the company will be required to spend time and money to secure their platform and restore trust.

Individual Risk: 2.571 = Moderate: It’s unclear if the hackers downloaded users’ personal information, but the hacked database includes user names, hashed and salted passwords, email addresses, and digital tokens associated with Google, Facebook, and Twitter accounts. Although Flipboard has reset all user passwords and disconnected or deleted all tokens, impacted individuals should be mindful that their credentials could be compromised. Flipboard users should be especially careful about using duplicate passwords on other services.

Customers Impacted: Unknown

Effect On Customers: Data breach incident responses are becoming increasingly commonplace. Apologies, investigations, and updates are typical responses from organizations, but they don’t have to become the norm. Extensive breaches similar to Flipboard’s should encourage companies to prioritize their cybersecurity initiatives and avoid breaches from occurring in the first place.

Risk Levels: 1 - 1.5 = Extreme Risk 1.51 - 2.49 = Severe Risk 2.5 - 3 = Moderate Risk *The risk score is calculated using a formula that considers a wide range of factors related to the assessed breach.


POSTSCRIPT:


Stolen NSA Tool May Be Responsible for Rash of Ransomware Attacks*

Ransomware attacks on local governments have become alarmingly prevalent, and they may have an unlikely source – a cyber weapon developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA). In 2017, the NSA lost control of one of its most impactful weapons, code-named EternalBlue, and it now lies in the hands of independent bad actors and state sponsored hackers. The impact on local governments has been immense. While some cities refuse to pay the ransom, many are left with little choice but to pay up to restore access to their digital infrastructure. At the same time, the additional security costs have made it difficult for cash-strapped governments to combat the threat. With so much on the line, a comprehensive ransomware response plan has never been more important. Since most ransomware originates as phishing scams sent to employee email accounts, this also means that proper training can be worth its weight in gold, or at least in Bitcoin.


Office 365 Users Targeted in Phishing Campaign*

Users of Microsoft’s popular Office 365 software might be the victims of the latest phishing campaign making its rounds online. Some users are receiving notifications purporting to be from “Office 365 Team” notifying recipients of an “unusual volume of file deletion” on their accounts. When recipients click on the “View alert details” link, a fake Microsoft login page appears that captures users’ login credentials. The attackers are using Azure, a popular hosting site that makes it more difficult to distinguish questionable URLs in a phishing attack. The growing sophistication of these attacks makes it even more difficult for users to differentiate a phishing attack from a real message. However, comprehensive training from providers like us can stop phishing scams in their tracks by empowering customer and employees with cybersecurity training and awareness.



*Disclaimer: Avantia Corporate Services Pty Ltd and Avantia Cyber Security provides the content in this publication to the reader for general information purposes only and has compiled the content from a number of sources in Australia, the USA, and up to 56 other countries who provide cyber breach information to us in real time. Given their international focus and experience in the cyberspace arena we believe their data to be accurate and reliable, however, we give no warranty (implied or otherwise), as to the contents accuracy or fitness for use. No validation or investigation has been performed by Avantia Corporate Services or the Author as to its accuracy or reliability. Readers should conduct their own investigation and come to their own conclusions before taking any action

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DISCLAIMER*: Avantia Corporate Services Pty Ltd and Avantia Cyber Security provides the content in this publication to the reader for general information purposes only and has compiled the content from a number of sources in Australia, the USA, and up to 56 other countries who provide cyber breach and cybersecurity information to us in real-time. Given their international focus and experience in the cyberspace arena, we believe their data to be accurate and reliable, however, we give no warranty (implied or otherwise), as to the content's accuracy or fitness for use. No validation or investigation has been performed by Avantia Corporate Services or the Author as to its accuracy or reliability. Readers should conduct their own investigation and come to their own conclusions before taking any action.

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